According to figures announced by the Government yesterday, over 150 people have been killed and 800 others injured during the clashes on Sunday.“This is an extraordinarily high number of people to be killed and injured in less than a day of rioting,” said Navi Pillay, High Commissioner for Human Rights. Although the exact circumstances that sparked the violence is not clear, longstanding tensions between the Uighur and Han Chinese ethnic groups is said to have played a major role. Reports indicate that Sunday’s demonstration was caused by clashes between the two groups at a toy factory in Guandong Province late last month.“I urge Uighur and Han civic leaders, and the Chinese authorities at all levels, to exercise great restraint so as not to spark further violence and loss of life,” Ms. Pillay said.She also underscored the need to maintain the right of demonstrators to exercise their freedom of expression peacefully.“I fully recognize that the authorities have an essential duty to maintain public order,” the High Commissioner said. “However, it is vital that the authorities only resort to lethal force when it is strictly unavoidable in order to protect life.”Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said yesterday in Geneva that in all countries, differences of opinion must be resolved peacefully through dialogue. Governments concerned also must exercise extreme care and take necessary measures to protect the lives and safety of the civilian population, he said.Furthermore, those arrested must also be treated properly, Ms. Pillay said today, adding that they “should be accorded due process that is fully in lie with China’s own laws and international human rights standards and norms.”She called for a transparent and independent investigation in to the causes of the rioting and why it escalated. “Such a process is essential to create trust,” she stressed. “Otherwise, there is a risk of a prolonged vicious circle of resentment, unrest and violent reaction and counter-reaction.” 7 July 2009The top United Nations human rights official today expressed her alarm at the high number of casualties sustained during this weekend’s rioting in Urumqi, the capital of China’s Xinjiang Autonomous Region, calling on all people to show restraint in the wake of the “major tragedy.”
In a statement released Sunday, the UN mission, known as UNMIL, said the 3,500 “re-hatted” soldiers from the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) will become the first contingent of up to 15,000 UN troops that eventually will be deployed to Liberia in a peacekeeping operation approved by the Security Council early this month.”UNMIL reiterates the appreciation of the United Nations for the efforts of the Economic Community of West African States to resolve the crisis in Liberia. The initiative of ECOWAS to convene peace talks among the Liberian parties and the subsequent deployment to Liberia of the peacekeeping force, ECOMIL, have underscored the determination of the sub-regional organization to provide leadership in peace-making and peacekeeping,” the statement said.”The United Nations commends the Governments of Benin, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal and Togo for their contribution to ECOMIL and for their willingness to re-hat the forces as United Nations peacekeepers,” it added.
Getting back on trackMany of the successes achieved last year resulted from strengthened leadership and accountability at all levels¬ – national, regional and global.“When countries and partners establish and enforce clear accountability systems, measure results and take corrective action when results are not achieved, gaps in immunization can be closed,” added Dr Okwo-Bele. Last year, the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (SAGE) identified 5 factors to achieving significant results in immunization coverage: quality and use of data community involvement better access to immunization services for marginalized and displaced populations strong health systems access to vaccines in all places at all times In strengthening the quality and use of data, the World Health Assembly passed a resolution last year on vaccine pricing, which called on countries to provide their vaccine prices to WHO. The agency’s database currently contains 1,600 vaccine price records on almost 50 different types of vaccines from 42 countries, but also from international buyers such as the procurement platform available in the WHO Region of the Americas and from the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF), making it the largest international vaccine price database. Because prices paid for vaccines represent a large share of countries’ immunization budgets and the prices of new vaccines are higher than those of traditional vaccines, the agency noted that costs represent a strong barrier to countries introducing new vaccines. The UN World Health Organization (WHO) announced that during World Immunization Week 2016, which begins Sunday, it will be highlighting recent gains in immunization coverage, and outlining further steps countries can take to meet global vaccination targets by 2020. “Last year immunization led to some notable wins in the fight against polio, rubella and maternal and neonatal tetanus,” says Dr Margaret Chan, WHO Director-General, in a press release. “But they were isolated wins. Polio was eliminated in one country, tetanus in three, and rubella in one geographical region. The challenge now is to make gains like this the norm,” she added. According to WHO, immunization averts two to three million deaths annually; however, an additional 1.5 million deaths could be avoided if global vaccination coverage improves. Today, an estimated 18.7 million infants – nearly one in five children worldwide – are still missing routine immunizations for preventable diseases, such as diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus.In 2012, the World Health Assembly endorsed the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP), a commitment to ensure that no one misses out on vital immunizations. Despite gains in vaccination coverage in some regions and countries the past year, global vaccination targets remain off track.WHO noted that only one out of six targets is on track – the introduction of new or underutilized vaccines in low- and middle-income countries. During the past five years, 86 low- and middle-income countries have made 128 introductions of the following vaccines: Hib-containing vaccine, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), rotavirus vaccine, human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV), rubella and inactivated polio vaccine. The target is to introduce one or more new or underutilized vaccines in at least 90 low- and middle-income countries by 2015.Game-changers in immunizationLast year reportedly saw some major breakthroughs. India joined Cambodia, Madagascar and Mauritania in eliminating maternal and neonatal tetanus. It also improved coverage of the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-containing vaccines (DTP3) to 83 per cent.Despite challenges imposed by Ebola, including for routine immunization coverage, the African Region became one-step closer to being certified polio-free with the removal of Nigeria from the list of polio-endemic countries. As recently as 2012, the country accounted for more than half of all polio cases worldwide. Now, only two countries – Afghanistan and Pakistan – remain polio endemic.The Region of the Americas became the first to eliminate rubella, a contagious viral disease that can cause multiple birth defects as well as foetal death when contracted by women during pregnancy. Additionally, five years after the introduction of an affordable conjugate meningitis A vaccine, immunization of more than 230 million people has led to the control and near elimination of deadly meningitis A disease in the African “meningitis belt” that stretches from Senegal to Ethiopia.New vaccines against dengue, Ebola and malaria have the potential to be game-changers in immunization in the near future. For example, through a “ring-vaccination” strategy, the Ebola vaccine is being given to anyone who has come into contact with a person infected with Ebola, as well as contacts of theirs.And, the new polio vaccination regimen, with the withdrawal of type 2 oral polio vaccine in 155 countries this month, represents a critical step towards a polio-free world.“Although the world has seen some achievements in immunization, global vaccination coverage has stalled the past few years,” said Dr Flavia Bustreo, WHO Assistant Director-General Family, Women and Children’s Health and Vice-Chair of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance Board. “Far too many opportunities to reach unvaccinated children and close the immunization gap are still being missed every day.” Reducing missed opportunities To improve vaccination coverage, WHO is calling on countries to reach more children missed by routine delivery systems, especially those living in countries, districts or areas where less than 80 per cent of them are receiving vaccines or those living in countries affected by conflicts or emergencies.More than 60 per cent of children who are unvaccinated live in 10 countries: the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Nigeria, Pakistan, the Philippines, Uganda and South Africa.Equally, when a child or adult who is unvaccinated or not fully vaccinated visits a health facility for any reason, their vaccination record should be checked by healthcare workers and they should be given all vaccines they are missing. However, recent field assessments in American and African Regions have shown that between 23 and 96 per cent of eligible children who visited a health facility for vaccination or for medical care, left the health facility without receiving the vaccine doses they needed.“These children are not what we would consider ‘hard-to-reach’ or underserved populations,” said Dr Jean-Marie Okwo-Bele, Director of Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals at WHO. “Children who are already present in health facilities are easy wins in improving vaccination coverage.” Women wait to have their children vaccinated against polio in a health centre in Erbil, Kurdistan region of Iraq. Photo: UNICEF/Anmar