Jennifer Ellison Brown: Principles of training and conditioning

first_img Training must be varied to avoid tedium (boredom). This is done by using a variety of different training methods to keep the enthusiasm and motivation. For example, follow a long workout with a short one, a high intensive session with a relaxed one, or a high-speed session with a slow one. Varying training methods also helps to avoid injuries. The body needs time to recover and adapt to training. Therefore, the stress placed on the body must be gradual or progressive. If the stress is built up too quickly, the risk of injury is great; also, if the challenge is too difficult, it could lead to demotivation. The body training threshold informs us when training is at the optimal level. Progressive loading, with the right amount of rest period for recovery, should result in performance improvement. Fitness cannot be stored for future use. It will disappear if training stops. It takes only three to four weeks for the body to get out of condition. For example, strength training makes the muscles thicken. This is called hypertrophy. If the training stops, the muscle shrinks, leading to atrophy. Therefore, to maintain any improvements, exercise or training has to be repeated regularly. Principle of progression Principle of specificity Principles of training Principle of reversibilitycenter_img This is choosing the right training for the sport or precise exercise for specific muscle groups. The type of training or exercise must be right for the type of improvement we need. Training should focus on the physiological and the psychological factors special to the activity for which the person is being trained. For example, sprinters must include a lot of speed work in their training to develop their fast-twitch muscle fibres. Training is a process based on principles which try to improve physical fitness and motor skills. It involves a balance between work, rest and recovery. Without proper rest, over training and burnout can occur. This, in time, causes performance and motivation to decrease. We all have some natural ability in sport. However, ability alone is not enough. Therefore, for steady progress and to avoid injury, the basic principles should be followed in planning an effective training programme. These five principles are designed to guide the achievement of fitness in a safe way. – Specificity – train for our own particular sport. – Progression – increase training gradually. – Overload – work harder than normal. – Reversibility – we lose fitness if we stop training. – Variation – make training interesting. The body will adapt to extra stress, therefore allowing the systems to work harder than normal will increase fitness. This is done by basing the training on the FITT principle, which is increasing Frequency, Intensity and Time for the Type of activity or exercise. For example, running more times per week, completing the run in a shorter time or increasing the distance, will aid in improving aerobic fitness. Each method will overload the aerobic system, which will gradually adapt to cope with the overload, hereby improving fitness. Principle of  variation Principle of overloadlast_img read more

Photo library: Nature 2

first_img{loadposition tc}Click on a thumbnail for a low-resolution image, or right-click on the link below it to download a high-resolution copy of the image.» Download Nature contact sheet (785KB) » Download full image library contact sheet (10.5MB) Western Cape province:The Swartland region.Photo: Swartland Wine Route » Download high-res image Western Cape province: Snowfall on the mountains in the Hex River Valley. Photo: Media Club South Africa » Download high-res image Western Cape province: Snowfall on the mountains in the Hex River Valley. Photo: Media Club South Africa » Download high-res image Western Cape province: Baviaanskloof Mountains. Photo: Media Club South Africa » Download high-res image Western Cape province: Baviaanskloof Mountains. Photo: Media Club South Africa » Download high-res image Western Cape province: Baviaanskloof Mountains.   Photo: Media Club South Africa » Download high-res image Karoo region, Western Capeprovince: Ostriches. Photo: Media Club South Africa » Download high-res image Karoo region, Western Capeprovince: Ostriches   Photo: Media Club South Africa » Download high-res image Karoo region, Western Capeprovince: Ostriches   Photo: Media Club South Africa » Download high-res imageNATURE 2: {loadposition nature}Having trouble downloading high-resolution images? Queries about the image library? Email Janine Erasmus at read more

Positive outlook for IT in SA

first_imgA stronger IT sector will attract more foreign investment to South Africa. (Image: Nelson Mandela Metro University)Janine ErasmusSouth Africa is the 37th most competitive country in information technology (IT), according to the Economist Intelligence Unit’s How technology sectors grow – Benchmarking IT industry competitiveness 2008 report. The country’s ranking is unchanged from 2007.Established in 1946, the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) is a division of the Economist Group and is regarded as the world’s leading provider of country analysis, industry trends and management best practices. The IT study assessed 66 countries around the world on the extent to which they support the competitiveness of IT firms.The US is again the top-ranked country on the index, but a number of upstarts have moved into the top five, displacing traditional IT heavyweights such as Japan and South Korea. Taiwan came in at number two, followed by the UK, Sweden and Denmark. Although the top 20 countries did not change from 2007, the list was reshuffled with nine countries moving up and 11 moving down.Countries received a score out of 100 – South Africa’s score was 32.6. The IT competitiveness index is divided into six categories with varying weights, comprising 25 indicators in total. The categories are: overall business environment (10%), IT infrastructure (20%), human capital (20%), legal environment (10%), R&D environment (25%) and support for IT industry development (15%).Denis McCauley, director of global technology research at the EIU, stated in the report, “Few countries can hope to build strong IT production sectors without strong business and legal environments, deep pools of talent, support for innovation, and the widespread use of technology throughout society.”The current global economic climate indicates tough times ahead for IT, say experts, but the industry should remain competitive. In its report, the EIU predicts world gross domestic product to decline by a full percentage point in 2008, and this will be particularly apparent in the US and western Europe, the world’s largest IT markets.This will affect spending on IT, but, says the EIU, global technology companies will continue to invest in economies with a favourable environment for doing business. With South Africa coming in at a favourable position on the World Bank’s recently-released Doing Business index, this should be an encouraging sign, and the situation reflects on the Economist survey too, with South Africa obtaining a score of 76.9 in the business environment category.Emerging markets becoming more competitiveThe report showed that IT industry environments in emerging markets are becoming more competitive and the gap between them and the top countries is closing.South Africa was the second highest country in the Middle East-Africa region, behind Israel at number 16 and ahead of Turkey (38), Saudi Arabia (40) and Egypt (53). It also came in well ahead of India (48), a country known to boast a fast-growing IT sector, and China (50). Nigeria (64), Algeria (65) and Iran (66) were the other countries surveyed from this region.South Africa’s other strong showing was in the legal category, with a score of 63.5. The country is one of a few non-EU members to be signatory to the Convention on Cybercrime, a treaty endorsed by most EU countries. Drawn up in 2001 by the Council of Europe, the convention aims to harmonise national laws on cybercrime and to improve co-operation between countries in combating digital crime.Infrastructure a challengeIn South Africa, as with many other countries, a telecommunications monopoly has been detrimental to the development of a strong IT sector. The report states that in South Africa, despite many attributes that make it attractive to foreign investors including good skills and the widespread use of English, lack of access to good cost-effective broadband is hindering growth of local businesses – the country slots into 44th place in the infrastructure category with a meagre score of 8.4.The report cited Dimension Data, one of South Africa’s biggest IT services companies, as saying that liberalisation and deregulation have been factors in a number of its larger foreign investment decisions in regions such as central Europe, and the same could be expected to apply to South Africa.“Making the telecoms industry more competitive would be a huge stimulus for the South African economy,” said Brett Dawson, CEO of Dimension Data. “In service-related industries like call centres, massive industries could be created that would make a huge difference to our country.”Competitive broadband markets are conducive to strong IT sectors, for a number of reasons, according to the report. Technology firms need fast, secure and reliable internet access to interact with their business partners and to sell their products online. Good IT infrastructure also plays an important role in the development of IT skills, a valuable commodity.Alastair de Wet, chair of the South African chapter of the Business Software Alliance, which sponsored the survey, commented that, “South Africa has been identified, alongside Bulgaria, the Ukraine and Vietnam, as an emerging outsourcing destination and through the realisation of faster, more reliable and more secure internet access we can look forward to receiving a significant boost with fast, competition-led infrastructure development.”Human resources is another important factor influencing the status of the IT sector in developed countries, says the report, which also notes that the IT brain drain from emerging countries is declining and may possibly go into reverse, posing a serious challenge for developed IT markets.Do you have queries or comments about this article? Email Janine Erasmus at storiesSouth Africa’s economyBroadband centre launched in SAUseful linksEconomist Intelligence UnitThe EIU IT competitiveness study (pdf)Business Software AllianceSchool of Information and Communication Technology – Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Universitylast_img read more

Oosthuizen captures British Open

first_imgThe closest Casey, who was partnering Oosthuizen, managed to get to him during the final round was three shots. Oosthuizen also paid tribute to Ernie Els and his Fancourt Foundation, which provides assistance to talented young South African golfers. With his victory, Oosthuizen became the first player from the Foundation to capture a Major title. Would you like to use this article in your publication or on your website? See: Using SAinfo material While the majority of the field struggled to master the windy conditions at the home of golf, Oosthuizen had no such problems. After the first round, he trailed only Rory McIlroy by two shots after the Northern Irishman had blitzed the course in a record nine-under-par 63. Afterwards, at the winner’s press conference, Oosthuizen said: “I felt it was very tight: three shots was nothing, playing that course anything could happen on the back nine, but the minute Paul hit it in the bush on 12, making that seven, and me making that putt for birdie was a huge thing. Surprise victoryWhile Oosthuizen’s winning margin was huge, it was probably not as huge as the surprise of him winning. After all, if someone had been lucky enough to lay a bet of R5 000 on Oosthuizen at the start of the tournament, that person would have walked away with R1-million thanks to odds of 200 to 1 on the South African. Ernie Els, Tim Clark, Jean Hugo, Joshua Cunliffe, and Darren Fichardt missed the cut. South Africa’s Louis Oosthuizen stunned the world of golf with an assured performance at the 139th edition of the Open Golf Championship, recording a sensational seven-shot victory on the Old Course at Saint Andrews on Sunday. ‘I felt it was very tight’ “To win an Open Championship is special, but to win it here at Saint Andrews is something you dream about,” he said afterwards. Trevor Immelman shared 23rd place, only one shot further off the pace, on three-under 285 after going around in 68, 74, 75, and 68. Playing with Casey, said Oosthuizen, had helped his game. “He’s just a great guy,” Oosthuizen explained. “Also a great golfer, fantastic person, he’s definitely going to win a major, that’s for sure. South Africa’s Retief Goosen produced a very steady four rounds of golf to finish alone in sixth on seven-under-par 281 after rounds of 69, 70, 72, and 70. 19 July 2010 “But then he told me the story of when he played against Arnold Palmer, when he won his first Masters. He said they wanted to throw stuff at him,” Oosthuizen laughed, “but he was so focused on beating him at Augusta. So, it meant a lot, him phoning me up.” The first thing Oosthuizen did in his speech on the 18th green after winning was to wish former South African President Nelson Mandela a happy 92nd birthday. In round three, Oosthuizen’s 69 was bettered by only six players. That left him on 15-under-par 201 with a round to play. England’s Paul Casey was the closest man to the South African, but four shots off the pace on 11-under 205. There were seven shots between Oosthuizen and third place. Essentially, it was his tournament to lose. Thomas Aiken finished on seven-over-par 295, tied for 74th “At that stage I had a lot of confidence and the holes that were coming up, I knew 13 and 14, to me, I don’t know, I like those holes.” Charl Schwartzel, the best man at Oosthuizen’s wedding, tied for 14th. He finished on four-under-par 284 after rounds of 71, 75, 68, and 70. Ahead of his final round, Oosthuizen received a phone call from South African golfing legend Gary Player. Oosthuizen related: “Gary was saying just to stay calm out there, have a lot of fun, and, you know, he said that the crowd was probably going to be on Paul’s side. Winning one’s first major, no doubt, makes it a fun day, especially when one has done enough over the first three rounds to leave very few challengers for the title. Behind OosthuizenBehind Oosthuizen, on 272, and Westwood, on 279, Casey had to settle for a share of third with Henrik Stenson and Rory McIlroy on 280. The Englishman went around in 75, while Stenson posted a 71, and McIlroy a 68. Remarkably, McIlroy had three rounds in the sixties, but, crucially, another of 80. “It’s always nice playing with him. We have a lot of fun on the course, talk about other things, things like that. I think it’s important, things like that. It’s still a game you’re playing and you’ve got to have fun with the guys you’re playing with. Otherwise it’s going to be quite miserable out there. But, yeah, we had a really fun day.” Displaying a calmness that surprised many (considering the big stakes), Oosthuizen kept his composure throughout the final round to record a convincing victory which was the fourth by a South African in The Open. Previously Bobby Locke, Gary Player and Oosthuizen’s mentor, Ernie Els, had lifted the famed Claret Jug. “And when I walked down the 18th, I was thinking about his birthday and my manager also gave me a list of things [to say], and it was also on there. What he’s done for our country is unbelievable and happy birthday once again.” Happy birthday “You know, I woke up this morning and I didn’t know it was his birthday today,” he admitted, “but I saw it this morning on the news, on the internet, and it just felt a bit special. Halfway leadOosthuizen topped the leaderboard at the halfway mark after a five-under-par 67 left him on 12-under 132. McIlroy, meanwhile, stumbled to an 80 and dropped way down the standings.last_img read more

NBA Finals: Siakam stakes Raptors to 88-81 lead after 3rd

first_imgDon’t miss out on the latest news and information. Two-day strike in Bicol fails to cripple transport PDEA chief backs Robredo in revealing ‘discoveries’ on drug war Cayetano: Senate, Drilon to be blamed for SEA Games mess Kevin Durant out with Achilles injury; to undergo MRI on Tuesday PLAY LIST 03:12Kevin Durant out with Achilles injury; to undergo MRI on Tuesday01:43Who are Filipinos rooting for in the NBA Finals?01:08Huge Toronto crowd celebrates Raptors’ historic win02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games02:11Trump awards medals to Jon Voight, Alison Krauss Catholic schools seek legislated pay hike, too LATEST STORIES Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next Ethel Booba twits Mocha over 2 toilets in one cubicle at SEA Games venue Toronto Raptors forward Pascal Siakam (43) drives on Golden State Warriors guard Stephen Curry (30) as Warriors forward Draymond Green (23) helps on defense during the first half of Game 1 of basketball’s NBA Finals, Thursday, May 30, 2019, in Toronto. (Frank Gunn/The Canadian Press via AP)Pascal Siakam has 26 points in 28 minutes, and the Toronto Raptors lead the Golden State Warriors 88-81 after three quarters of Game 1 of the NBA Finals.Siakam is 11 for 13 from the floor in his first finals game.ADVERTISEMENTcenter_img MOST READ View comments DA eyes importing ‘galunggong’ anew Kawhi Leonard has 18 points and Marc Gasol has 16 for the Raptors. Former Golden State guard Patrick McCaw hit a big 3-pointer late in the third for the Raptors, putting them up by seven going into the final period.Siakam heats up for 14 3rd quarter PTS in Game 1! #WeTheNorth FEATURED STORIESSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSPalace wants Cayetano’s PHISGOC Foundation probed over corruption chargesSPORTSSingapore latest to raise issue on SEA Games food, logistics: ABC : Sportsnet— NBA (@NBA) May 31, 2019 Private companies step in to help SEA Games hosting NBA Finals: Fouls continue to pile up in Game 1 as Green picks up his 4th Draymond Green has 10 points, 10 rebounds and eight assists for the Warriors. Golden State is 29-1 when he records a triple-double.Stephen Curry leads the Warriors with 26 points, and Klay Thompson has scored 15.ADVERTISEMENT ‘Rebel attack’ no cause for concern-PNP, AFPlast_img read more


first_imgDefinitionA colonoscopy is an exam that views the insideof the colon (large intestine) and rectum, using a toolcalled a colonoscope.The colonoscope has a small camera attached to a flexible tube that can reach the length of the colon.How the Test is PerformedYouare likely given medicine into a vein to help you relax. You should not feel any pain. Youare awake during the test and may even be able to speak. But youprobably willnot remember anything.You lie on your left side with your knees drawn up toward your chest.The colonoscope is gentlyinserted through the anus. It is carefully moved into the beginning of the largeintestine. The scope is slowly advancedas far as the lowest part of the small intestine.Airis inserted through the scope to provide a better view. Suction may be used to remove fluid or stool.Thedoctor gets a better view as the scope ismoved back out. Therefore, a more careful exam is done while the scope is beingpulled back.Tissue samples (biopsy)orpolypsmay be removed using tiny tools inserted through the scope.Photosmay be taken using the camera at the end of the scope. If needed, procedures, such as laser therapy,are also done.How to Prepare for the TestYour bowelneeds to be completely empty and clean for the exam.A problem in your large intestine that needs to be treated may be missed if your intestines are not cleaned out.Your health care provider willgive you the steps forcleansing your bowel. This is called bowel preparation.Steps may include using enemas, not eating solid foods for 2 or 3 days before the test, and taking laxatives.advertisementYouneed to drink plenty of clear liquids for 1to 3 days before the test. Examples of clear liquids are:Clear coffee or teaFat-free bouillon or brothGelatinSports drinksStrained fruit juicesWaterYou willlikely be told to stop taking aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, or other blood-thinning medicines for several days before the test.Keep taking your other medicines unless your doctor tells you otherwise.You will need to stop taking ironpills or liquidsa fewdays before the test, unless your health care provider tells you it isOK to continue.Iron can make your stooldark black. Thismakes it harder for the doctor toview insideyour bowel.How the Test will FeelThe medicines will make you sleepy so thatmay not feel any discomfort or have anymemory of the test.You may feel pressure as the scope moves inside. You may feel brief cramping and gas pains as air is inserted or the scope advances. Passing gas is necessary and should be expected.After the exam, you may have mild abdominal cramping and pass a lot of gas. You may also feel bloated and sick to your stomach. These soon go away.You should be able to go home about 1 hour after the test. You must plan to have someone take you home after the test, because you will be woozy and unable to drive. The nurses and doctors will not let you leave until someone arrives to help you.When you are home:Drink plenty of liquids. Eat a healthy meal to restore your energy.You should be able to return to your regular activities the next day.Avoid driving, operating machinery, drinking alcohol, and making important decisions for at least 24 hours after the test.Why the Test is PerformedColonoscopy may be donefor the following reasons:Abdominal pain, changes in bowel movements, or weight lossAbnormal changes (such as polyps) found on sigmoidoscopy or x-ray tests (CT scan or barium enema)Anemia due to low iron (usually when no other cause has been found)Blood in the stool, or black, tarry stoolsFollow-up of a past finding, such as polyps or colon cancerInflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease)Screening for colorectal cancerNormal ResultsNormal findings are healthy intestinal tissues.What Abnormal Results MeanAbnormal pouches on the lining of the intestines, called diverticulosisAreas of bleedingCancer in the colon or rectumColitis (a swollen and inflamed intestine) due to Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis, infection, or lack of blood flowSmall growths called polypson thelining of your colon (which can be removed through the colonoscope during the exam)RisksHeavy or ongoing bleeding from biopsy or removal of polypsHole or tear in the wall of the colon that requires surgery to repairInfection needing antibiotic therapy (very rare)Reaction tothe medicine youtake to relax, causing breathing problems or low blood pressureReferences Kimmey MB. Complications of gastrointestinal endoscopy. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtrans Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease: Pathophysiology/Diagnosis/Management. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Saunders; 2010:chap 40.advertisementNational Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines): Colorectal cancer screening. Version 2.2013. Available at: Accessed October 24, 2013.Pasricha PJ. Gastrointestinal endoscopy. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldmans Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 136.Review Date:10/14/2013Reviewed By:George F. Longstreth, MD, Department of Gastroenterology, Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program, San Diego, California. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.last_img read more