History and development of PE and sports

first_img Caribbean’s Olympic history In 1894, Baron Pierre de Coubertin became inspired by a number of events that were held, all claiming to be a revival of the Olympic Games. This led him to set up the International Olympic Committee (IOC), which initiated the modern Olympic Games. The baron had been impressed by the Games he had seen in the English public schools and the athleticism they generated. He wanted to improve the physical health of his countrymen and thought the Olympic Games would be a good way to do it. The first Games took place in Athens, Greece, in 1896, and 241 male athletes from 14 countries competed in nine sports. Today, the Olympic Games are the world’s biggest and most famous sporting event. Held every four years – with both summer and winter sports competition – the aim is to promote the ideals of ï Personal excellence ï Sport as education ï Cultural exchange ï Mass participation ï Fair play ï International understanding. The IOC works to ensure that a lasting legacy is developed, helping the host cities to change their community for the better. They are also working with developing countries to help with expansion of sporting programmes, focusing on education and sports, peace and sports, women and sports, and sports and the environment. The Olympic values of excellence, respect, and friendship are of huge importance before, during, and after the event. The last Olympic Games, in 2012, were held in London, England and 204 countries took part in 26 sports. The next Olympics will be held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2016, followed by Tokyo, Japan, in 2020. Past Olympic Games 1896 Athens 1900 Paris 1904 St Louis 1908 London 1912 Stockholm 1916 cancelled (World War I) 1920 Antwerp 1924 Paris 1928 Amsterdam 1932 Los Angeles 1936 Berlin 1940-1944 cancelled (World War II) 1948 London 1952 Helsinki 1956 Melbourne 1960 Rome 1964 Tokyo 1968 Mexico City 1976 Montreal 1980 Moscow 1984 Los Angeles 1988 Seoul 1992 Barcelona 1996 Atlanta 2000 Sydney 2004 Athens 2008 Beijing 2012 London The IOC chooses the host city through its members’ votes. Cities, not countries, put their names forward. A number of scandals showed a great deal of bribery was involved in the selection process and new rules were introduced by the IOC in 1999. Cities cannot now be accepted as official candidates until the IOC executive board is satisfied that they are properly prepared and in line with IOC guidelines. Visits by IOC members to such cities and gifts to IOC members are banned. All summer Olympics since 1984 have made a healthy profit. plus, there is status and publicity for both the city and country. They must improve their facilities as well as roads, transportation system, guest accommodation, and tourist attractions. Holding the Olympics provides other commercial opportunities because of the large influx of competitors and spectators during the Games. The first Olympic Games were heavily based on religion and were tributes to the gods of ancient Greece. The Games can be traced as far back as 776 BC and were held every four years in Olympia, Greece, until 393 AD when they were banned by a Christian, Emperor Theodosius I, who saw them as pagan festivals. The ancient Olympics were also an opportunity to show the abilities of young people and to promote good relationships among competing cities. A truce was declared during the Games. all fighting had to stop. Married women were strictly forbidden to watch the Games. The Games initially lasted one day but gradually went to three and then five days of competition. The events included athletics, boxing, wrestling, pentathlon (which consisted of three running races, jumping, and discus throw), chariot racing, equestrian events, and the pancratium, a violent combination of boxing and wrestling. Winners were given laurel wreaths and palm branches, which were highly regarded. The Olympic Gamescenter_img Cuba was the first Caribbean country documented to have entered the Summer Olympic Games, doing so in 1900 in Paris. They won two medals – one gold and a silver – in fencing. Haiti entered in 1924, but it was not until 1948 that teams from a number of Caribbean countries, including Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago, participated. Arthur Wint won Jamaica’s first gold medal, and Rodney Wilkes won a weightlifting bronze for Trinidad and Tobago. In 1998, a meeting of Caribbean delegates took place to discus Caribbean Olympism, and the Caribbean Association of National Olympic Committees was established. The modern Olympicslast_img read more

Students use smarts for damaged hearts

first_imghttp://news.rice.edu/files/2015/04/0427_FLOWTASTIC-3-web.jpgThe Flowtastic team of Rice University engineering students created an app and hardware to help control a unique heart assist pump. Members are, standing from left, Navaneeth Ravindranath, Ernest Chan, Alex Bisberg and Benjamin Lopez, and seated, Tracy Fu and Joshua Choi. (Credit: Jeff Fitlow/Rice University)Located on a 300-acre forested campus in Houston, Rice University is consistently ranked among the nation’s top 20 universities by U.S. News & World Report. Rice has highly respected schools of Architecture, Business, Continuing Studies, Engineering, Humanities, Music, Natural Sciences and Social Sciences and is home to the Baker Institute for Public Policy. With 3,888 undergraduates and 2,610 graduate students, Rice’s undergraduate student-to-faculty ratio is 6-to-1. Its residential college system builds close-knit communities and lifelong friendships, just one reason why Rice is ranked among some of the top schools for best quality of life by the Princeton Review and for best value among private universities by Kiplinger’s Personal Finance. To read “What they’re saying about Rice,” go to http://tinyurl.com/AboutRiceU. http://news.rice.edu/files/2015/04/0427_FLOWTASTIC-1-web.jpgRice University engineering students have added smartphone-enabled controls to a heart assist pump developed by a Houston medical device company. The Flowtastic team’s software and hardware would allow doctors to monitor their patients remotely and even adjust the pump speed. (Credit: Jeff Fitlow/Rice University) http://news.rice.edu/files/2015/04/0427_FLOWTASTIC-2-web.jpgRice University engineering students have created an app and hardware to help control a unique heart assist pump under development by a Houston company. (Credit: Jeff Fitlow/Rice University) ShareEditor’s note: Links to images for download appear at the end of this release.David Ruth713-348-6327david@rice.eduMike Williams713-348-6728mikewilliams@rice.eduStudents use smarts for damaged hearts Rice University seniors create smartphone app to connect heart patient, pump, doctor HOUSTON – (April 29, 2015) – A smartphone app created by students at Rice University may someday serve as the ultimate remote to help control the flow of blood through human hearts.The Flowtastic team of Rice senior engineering students created a combined software-hardware interface that works with an Android app to monitor and even control a high-tech pump that resides in the aorta and regulates the flow of blood.The circulatory assist pump called Aortix was invented by Houston-based Procyrion, which is seeking  approval from the Food and Drug Administration to use it as a minimally invasive solution for heart-failure patients.“It’s for that in-between phase when medication might not be enough and you don’t want to go and get a super-invasive surgery where they have to cut your chest open,” said Rice bioengineering student Benjamin Lopez. “We don’t want you to get to that very severe state and there’s nothing really out there for you right now.” As many as 2.6 million patients could benefit from such a device, according to the company.The six-member Rice team also includes bioengineering students Alex Bisberg and Joshua Choi and electrical engineering students Tracy Fu, Navaneeth Ravindranath and Ernest Chan. Their advisers are Gary Woods, a professor in the practice of computer technology and electrical and computer engineering, and Eric Richardson, a lecturer in bioengineering. They are also working with Tanner Songkakul, a product development engineer at Procyrion who earned a bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering from Rice in 2014.The students have been working at Rice’s Oshman Engineering Design Kitchen with a Procyrion prototype, a stent attached to a tiny but powerful pump that can be inserted into the patient’s aortic vessel to assure that blood keeps flowing at the proper rate to the heart.The Rice team’s contribution gives doctors a way to monitor the device’s performance and make adjustments when necessary, reducing the heart’s workload and helping it heal.“Our goal has been to make a holistic and integrated system that allows the patient to connect with the doctor and also connect with their device,” Bisberg said. The Rice team built hardware that plugs into the Procyrion controller and also communicates wirelessly with the Android app. They expect the company will combine the hardware components into a single unit that the patient will carry.Bisberg said patients will be asked to enter their weight into the app every day. That information will automatically go to the doctor’s database. “Weight is a key factor in managing heart failure,” he said. “When the heart isn’t working well, the patient’s body tends to retain fluid.“We want to be able to get a higher fluid-clearance rate from their bodies by accelerating blood flow to the kidneys and getting the liquid out of their systems.”If a patient gains too much weight too quickly, the app would notify the doctor, according to team members. They expect the doctor will be able to adjust the pump as necessary either remotely or by plugging directly into the external electronics.“A change in weight would trigger an email to tell the doctor what’s going on,” Chan said. “That way the doctor only has to look at that data when needed.”“We spoke to a lot of cardiologists at the Texas Heart Institute and a lot of them said this technology’s great, but it would be really nice if they could only be notified when there’s really a need for them to go in and check,” Choi said.The system should be a great help to people who can still lead an active lifestyle, he said. “They’re not sedentary,” Chan said. “They can go out and live their lives and we can hold back the progression of the disease and prevent bad things from happening.”While the team members will leave their project behind when they graduate in May, they said what they’ve invented may be adapted to work with hardware that monitors glucose levels or pacemakers.Watch a video about the project at https://youtu.be/87zXfmAA4AIFollow Rice News and Media Relations via Twitter @RiceUNewsRelated Materials:Flowtastic team: http://oedk.rice.edu/Sys/PublicProfile/25624153/1063096George R. Brown School of Engineering: http://engr.rice.eduImages for download: FacebookTwitterPrintEmailAddThislast_img read more