Jennifer Ellison Brown: Principles of training and conditioning

first_img Training must be varied to avoid tedium (boredom). This is done by using a variety of different training methods to keep the enthusiasm and motivation. For example, follow a long workout with a short one, a high intensive session with a relaxed one, or a high-speed session with a slow one. Varying training methods also helps to avoid injuries. The body needs time to recover and adapt to training. Therefore, the stress placed on the body must be gradual or progressive. If the stress is built up too quickly, the risk of injury is great; also, if the challenge is too difficult, it could lead to demotivation. The body training threshold informs us when training is at the optimal level. Progressive loading, with the right amount of rest period for recovery, should result in performance improvement. Fitness cannot be stored for future use. It will disappear if training stops. It takes only three to four weeks for the body to get out of condition. For example, strength training makes the muscles thicken. This is called hypertrophy. If the training stops, the muscle shrinks, leading to atrophy. Therefore, to maintain any improvements, exercise or training has to be repeated regularly. Principle of progression Principle of specificity Principles of training Principle of reversibilitycenter_img This is choosing the right training for the sport or precise exercise for specific muscle groups. The type of training or exercise must be right for the type of improvement we need. Training should focus on the physiological and the psychological factors special to the activity for which the person is being trained. For example, sprinters must include a lot of speed work in their training to develop their fast-twitch muscle fibres. Training is a process based on principles which try to improve physical fitness and motor skills. It involves a balance between work, rest and recovery. Without proper rest, over training and burnout can occur. This, in time, causes performance and motivation to decrease. We all have some natural ability in sport. However, ability alone is not enough. Therefore, for steady progress and to avoid injury, the basic principles should be followed in planning an effective training programme. These five principles are designed to guide the achievement of fitness in a safe way. – Specificity – train for our own particular sport. – Progression – increase training gradually. – Overload – work harder than normal. – Reversibility – we lose fitness if we stop training. – Variation – make training interesting. The body will adapt to extra stress, therefore allowing the systems to work harder than normal will increase fitness. This is done by basing the training on the FITT principle, which is increasing Frequency, Intensity and Time for the Type of activity or exercise. For example, running more times per week, completing the run in a shorter time or increasing the distance, will aid in improving aerobic fitness. Each method will overload the aerobic system, which will gradually adapt to cope with the overload, hereby improving fitness. Principle of  variation Principle of overloadlast_img read more

‘Power Is Nothing Without Control’

first_imgFormer Justice Minister, Cllr. Frederick Cherue The newly appointed Minister of Justice, Cllr. Frederick Cherue, said that power is nothing without control. In other words, if one is given power and cannot control himself or herself in the exercise of that power, he or she will surely lose it. The statement was in reference to the misuse of power, in which so many Liberian Attorneys General have engaged while they held office, getting into trouble not only with the public, but eventually with their boss, the Presidents of Liberia, who appointed them. Being one of the most powerful and most prestigious positions in government, the position of Justice Minister and Attorney General of Liberia has been abused in the past by some officials who engaged in the excessive use of power against certain people and the masses, causing them great pain and suffering. One of them was Justice Minister Chea Cheapoo, who as Justice Minister appointed immediately following the April 12, 1980 coup d’etat, sent many innocent people to jail and kept them there for months until Head of State Samuel K. Doe fired him inAugust 1981. Another was Jenkins Scott, who also committed many innocents to prison and closed down the Daily Observer several times. He also presided over two arson attacks against the newspaper, in March 1986 and March 1990.But just as the newly appointed Justice Minister and Attorney General, Cllr. Frederick Cherue told the Daily Observer yesterday, if one has power and cannot control it, that power is nothing, and it will soon be gone. The identical thing happened to both Cheapoo and Jenkins Scott. As for the latter, Jenkins Scott died a disgraceful death, while trying to fetch food from a dumpsite in Monrovia.Counsellor Cherue, President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf’s newly appointed Justice Minister and Attorney General, on the other hand, has vowed not to tread the path of the reckless and uncontrollable use of power. “I do not intend to leave this office tomorrow as a friendless, isolated individual, leaving many enemies behind,” he declared in an exclusive interview with the Daily Observer yesterday. “I intend to serve my time in this office knowing that there is a tomorrow when I will no longer be Attorney General; and when that time comes, I intend to return to the community where I can live in friendship and peace with all those I knew before, and even among more friends.” “Power is nothing without control,” Cllr. Cherue reemphasized, and pledged “to keep a level head, just as I have done throughout my public and private lives in the positions I have been fortunate to hold.” He further pledged his commitment “to help President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf reach the finishing line (of her administration) peacefully.” The MOJ is the prosecuting arm of the government, and Minister Cherue said his tenure at the Ministry will be very consultative in order to ensure “that the right things are done.” Many of Cherue’s predecessors, though not all the immediate ones, were “intoxicated” with the power and prestige that come with that position, preferring to use excessive power or an iron fist to execute the mandates of their office. They, however, ended up creating many enemies for themselves.Some of these past officials in the country’s recent history, specifically Chea Cheapo and Jenkins Scott, gained notoriety for the manner in which they governed the Ministry. They often went beyond their bounds to terrorize and dehumanized their compatriots. However, Attorney General Cherue, who officially took over the position yesterday, said that power becomes useless when it is used beyond control.Speaking to the Daily Observer at his 9th Street Justice Ministry office yesterday, Minister Cherue spoke of his very humble beginnings in River Gee County. Both his parents were humble and hardworking people.Asked as to how he intends to interpret and use the power that comes with his new position, the former River Gee Senator replied, “I will do my best. I will read the laws and consult with my colleagues, especially those here at the Justice Ministry, to make the best decisions possible in the interest of the Liberian people. I will advise my boss, President Sirleaf, strictly on be basis of the law. If there is anything she wants done that may not be in keeping with the law, I will advise her by saying, ‘Madam President, this is what the law says.’”The Minister also senses that the inability of past officials to tell their bosses the truth stems from the fact that many of them were not too familiar with the country’s laws, and the absence of the truth creates some of the unnecessary situations in the country’s past.“I will obey, respect and be committed to the President’s national development agenda, but I will muster the courage whenever I’m opportune to sit with her to advise her appropriately in order for us to make the right decisions. I know the President will always be willing to listen to me because she has confidence in me. That’s why she appointed me,” he added.Upon officially taking over as Justice Minister yesterday, the first thing that Minister Cherue did was to visit the Monrovia Central Prison, which he described as being “very overcrowded.” Providing an update on the prison facility, the Minister indicated that the facility currently hosts 1,001 detainees, when it was built for only 300. And many of the prisoners there are pre-trial detainees—a situation he described as “very disturbing.” “Out of this huge number only a hundred have been sentenced, while over eight hundred are pre-trial detainees,” Minister Cherue noted. Their prolonged detention is not helping the system. Because of this, he said, he is working with Chief Justice Francis Korkpor to see how the problem might be resolved. The Attorney General revealed that the Chief Justice, who is seriously concerned about the prison’s over-crowdedness, has set up a “fast track court,” to fast track some of the minor cases and see how some of these prisoners can be released on bail.Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)last_img read more